What is a Laparoscopic Trocar?

A trocar is a multifunctional medical device that is usually inserted into a surgical patient through a hollow tube called a cannula. The role of the trocar is to introduce three basic elements: illumination, a scope, and surgical tools. Miniaturized modern laparoscopic trocars can accommodate three or more as a single surgical device.

Laparoscopic surgery allows physicians to operate without a trocar, although the patent for the trocar was recorded in the early 19th century, as its original use was primarily to relieve pressure from accumulated bodily fluids or gases. Presumably, this tool may have been in use for thousands of years in principle, if not complex. The pointed piercing device, so named because of the three sides of the triangle in its position, was first used to look inside a dog in 1905. A few years later, its help in human surgery ushered in a new era of medicine—non-invasive surgical repair of internal trauma. Laparoscopic trocars introduced illumination and scopes during surgery, and the first laparoscopic devices were rather crude compared to modern laparoscopic trocars. Surgeons stared at a straight-axis style scope made of fuzzy glass lenses To inspect the device, enter a dark enclosure that is barely visible to stray light, bring the Lapas mirror directly to the surgical target, and illuminate with a cold halogen or xenon lamp. Electronic technology enables these components to be miniaturized. Miniaturization has also been applied in designing various surgical tools, such as scissors, retractors, and laparoscopic staplers, which can be easily attached or inserted into laparoscopic trocars.

The trocar itself is not only miniaturized, but also has advanced functional design. Like a long metal syringe, they are no longer triangular or sharp tips: most come with irrigation and suction tubes. Thumb and index finger controls provide a wider range of tool manipulation. One of the techniques of laparotomy is to separate abdominal organs and create a wider surgical space by filling the body cavity with carbon dioxide. Therefore, the laparoscopic trocar has been redesigned as a completely sealed instrument. Laparoscopic surgery, or "open" abdominal surgery, is still necessary, but increasingly, laparoscopic trocars can be used to perform surgery through incisions smaller than 0.4 inches (1 cm) in diameter with this surgical instrument. In human joint surgery, the incision and insertion of the trocar are smaller. Therefore, this type of laparoscopic surgery is called "keyhole" surgery. In practice, most procedures require the use of multiple laparoscopic trocars through multiple keyhole incisions. Some surgical procedures involve multiple instruments, and some instruments require two-handed operation. Whether it's technology miniaturization or design improvements, however, medical students can use dummies to perform laparoscopic procedures before they're allowed to work with patients.

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